What does the word ‘spirit’ mean to an English person, particularly from a religious perspective?

    • Something that can possess people: The New Testament, Mark 9:25

And when Jesus saw that a crowd came running together, he rebuked the unclean spirit, saying to it, “You mute and deaf spirit, I command you, come out of him and never enter him again.”

The New Testament was written in Greek, and the Greek word used for spirit was πνεῦμα (pneuma) meaning, in traditional Greek, a movement of air (breath, wind).

  • Liquor, i.e. alcoholic drinks: spirit in this sense goes back to when chemistry (known then as alchemy) was reaching European shores from the Middle East. The muslim scientists said that, during chemical reactions, a vapour was given off. The translation of this vapour was ‘spirit’ – The word for vapour at that time in the Arabic being (I believe) روح (ruḥ), usually translated as ‘soul’ . This word is linked to the word ريح (riḥ) meaning ‘wind’.
  • Going back to the Old Testament and Judaism we have two relevant words, nafash and ruah. These are obviously cognates to the arabic words نفس (nafs) and روح (ruḥ) – see more here and here.

In the English language the word ‘spirit’ derives from the Latin spirare, to blow. There are many other derivative meanings in English, here’s just a few:

  • Spiritual world
  • In good spirits
  • Spirited defence
  • Inspired, inspiration

Clearly, then, the English word spirit has a similar root (in terms of meaning) as has the Arabic word for soul i.e. روح (ruḥ). Allah says in the Qur’aan:

alHijr 15:29

فَإِذَا سَوَّيْتُهُ وَنَفَخْتُ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِي فَقَعُوا لَهُ سَاجِدِينَ

translated as:

“When I have fashioned him (in due proportion) and breathed into him of My spirit, fall ye down in obeisance unto him.”

i.e. both spirit and the Arabic word for soul روح (ruḥ) have connotations of breath, wind.

I found the following answer from Sheikh Hamza Yusuf very interesting:

Shaykh Hamza Yusuf – Modern idea of re-establishing Shariah Hudood Punishments

I agree with the Sheikh wholeheartedly, applying many of the Hudood (حدود) punishments to the muslims living in the modern world would, in these times, lack mercy (رحمة) due to the fact that the all-consuming material culture we are in has corrupted us too much to be held to these noble standards. As a consequence we should, in these times and this culture, refrain from their implementation. He also points out that the noble way of the companions of the Prophet, may God be pleased with them,  was to try to hide violations of the Hudood, not to go hunting for them and to force them into the public. I strongly recommend viewing the whole video.

 

About five years ago I decided to pen a missive to my future teenage daughter – the reasons for which, deserving a post of their own, will come later. I had in mind that the content would potentially benefit others, so I decided I would write it as a book.

The first draft of the book was coming quickly and I had to decide which tools to use to publish the book. I chose self-publishing because I wanted full control of any future changes / corrections /edits that I might wish to apply – the content deals with some sensitive subjects and I might well wish to improve the clarity of some parts at a later date. What seems clear to the author when written may be ambiguous or misleading to some readers. I was very keen that the presentation of the book be to a high standard, and experience with the usual word processors has taught me that they are a poor choice for those wanting detailed control over the final printed page. I had previously used LateX, a free typesetting package suitable for the more technically oriented, and I was confident that LateX (the X is the upper case of the Greek letter χ (Chi), roughly pronounced as a K, so LateK) would allow me to have the control of the final printed results that I desired.

The book was also to contain a small amount of Arabic content and using Linux I found that the installation of the software together with its many accompanying packages, including Arabic support, was a snap. On its own LateX is a command line tool so I needed to select a GUI based program to actually type out my book into. I chose Kile, a LateX editor based on Qt and from the KDE family of applications. I’m a long time user of Linux and KDE, from the very early days in fact, and have generally had a good experience of it.

So, a couple of chapters written, it was time to have a peek at what the final presentation quality would be. In just a few seconds and using the QuickBuild option I had a pdf document to look at. There were lots of very strange warnings in the program log, but the final results looked great – this was going to be easy, I though to myself! Yes, dear reader, if this was TV or radio and not a piece of italicised text then right now you would hear some deep laughter echoing around the distant hills

bellBefore continuing this particular lamentation, allow my superego to interject. I was ultimately able to produce a very nicely presented book and the pdf that LateX created for me was just right for printing the paperback book via the self-publishing route, so to be fair – LateX did a great job. Now, continuing where I left off…

I completed the main body of the book in a couple of months. I really did write it for my daughter, and I needed time to consider if I would actually publish it for others to read. Over the course of the next few years I would occasionally amend or add to the text, and gave some preliminarily printed copies (using Inky Little Fingers, a UK based printer who I can recommend) to friends to look over. I received some great feedback from them, and they encouraged me to go ahead and release the book.

During this extended period of mullation (OK, that’s not a real word) I designed the front cover, using Inkscape. Inkscape works with vectors (lines, rather than pixels) so the designs that you create can be easily scaled to any size. I then saved the graphic design to pdf and fired up Scribus, which is desktop publishing software, to complete the cover (back page etc.).

This is where my natural lethargy kicked in. Tarek, you are right, I never finish anything. Look, I’m not a completer-finisher. I’m an ideas man. However, this time was going to be different. I would finish it, this was important to me.

So, the time came. This was it. I was going to publish. I had printed a few dozen more copies to give to friends etc., and to send in the post to anyone who wanted to buy it. However, how would anyone know about it? Also, I realised very late in the day, if anyone outside of the UK were interested in buying the book then the P&P would in all likelihood put them off any purchase. I needed an international distributor – Amazon suddenly started looking like my only realistic option. This meant going through  CreateSpace , an Amazon company that specialises in self-publishers. I submitted my pdf and cover design, and before long (through a fairly simple process in fact, kudos to the developers of their web site) I had a copy for review in my hands – just after Christmas 2015 in fact. The front cover image was a little offset to the left, but apart from that it was good.

Now, what about the ebook version? I felt at this late stage that the price I would have to charge for the paperback would be off-putting to too many potential readers. I needed an ebook version. It was here that the pain, unexpectedly, really kicked in. I’m a software developer, by profession and for the love of it. I would write a converter program that would take my source document (in LateX) and convert it to the HTML needed to create an EPUB format file. How hard could it be? Now, when developing IT systems, and software in general, you should never assume anything. It’s always in the assumptions that disaster falls. In this case, I assumed that the LateX document format was logical, consistent, even straightforward. After all, I hadn’t noticed anything untoward when using LateX, and I’m a highly experienced software developer. How wrong we can be! I started writing a parser for LateX sources, to analyse the overall structure of it. This is when it really hit me – LateX might look fairly sensibly structured at first glance, but if you are using various extra packages then the structure very quickly becomes, well, kind of unstructured:-). Each developer of each package can invent his own weird syntax for controlling the extra features. Sure enough, weird syntax abounds. My parser program and the algorithms to process the parsed document quickly became a horrendous mess.

The difficulty was further compounded by the fact that the ebook format is really designed for novels, where there are no complex layouts or odd languages. Technical text books are way out of reach for the format, which is why they tend to look so bad – it’s not entirely the publishers fault. In my case I worked around it by converting the hard parts (mainly decorative Arabic for quranic verses) to images, automated using my program.

Now, if this was a process that I was going to repeat then I would have stopped about half-way and re-written my parser from scratch, using the knowledge I had gained so far through the process. But this was a one-off job, I was nearly finished, I reasoned. Just the footnotes and bibliography left to do, I thought. But no, each last part of the LateX that I converted to HTML just made my program worse and worse. Still, I finally got an EPUB file that was a fair reproduction of the real printed book, Arabic content, pictures, footnotes, bibliography and all.

Using an Amazon provided utility I converted the EPUB file to a MOBI document (which is the ebook format that Amazon requires) and could then email it to my Amazon account, so that I could view it in an Amazon reader. Again, it gets funky. It turns out there are a dozen different Amazon devices and applications that readers could be using – it’s not just plain old Kindles. Each device can render things differently. If you want to keep your readers happy, you need to test your MOBI file on every one of them. Fortunately Amazon provide a device emulator, however it doesn’t work too accurately (overlines and dots under letters are just not rendered as they do on a real device) and recent versions don’t emulate the Kindle! Yes, in the end, despite Amazon providing a device emulator, I had to buy a Kindle just to test how the book would finally look on it. Even now I don’t know how the book will look on older Kindle devices, which run older versions of the software.

Finally, one last task – the ISBN number. I invented a new publisher, being me, which I named Westbury Hill Press. In the UK ISBN numbers can only be bought in batches of 10, and I only needed one (the ebook does not need an ISBN number). It is a simple process if a little pricey (around $150). Using some more free software I created a bar code that I added to the back cover, together with a suggested RRP and a publishing categorisation to make life easier for bookstore owners and librarians (as if they will ever see one! – I wish).

Finally then, I can push the Publish button. The softback is available on Amazon via CreateSpace, and the ebook via Kindle Direct Publishing. I don’t expect many sales, just a handful maybe. But that is not why I wrote the book and I don’t mind, I feel that the responsibility is fulfilled and my job is done.  الحمد لله, Thank God!

Oh, a sample of the  book? Head over to Amazon and download the sample, you can view it in the Amazon Kindle app on your tablet.

Learn more about the book at Westbury Hill Press – A Message For Tuqa.

P.S I’m now ready for further punishment – now to write my book about Madhhabs, Maps and Metaphors – I’ll be back in 5 years:-).

 

 


 

 

In a thread on DeenPort we were asked for comments on Prof Krauss’ book  A Universe from Nothing in which he claims that according to modern physics the universe could have spontaneously come into existence without any act of creation. My simple response was to ask, how did the laws of physics come into existence?

Mansoor Malik brought to our attention the excellent critique of the book here:

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/cross-check/p hysicist-george-ellis-knocks-physicists-for-knock ing-philosophy-falsification-free-will/

Here I capture some further thoughts about the issue.

The scientist who gives the opinion in the linked article is a Christian, however I believe that most atheist scientists would also strongly agree with the thrust of the article.

When I asked where the laws of physics came from, I wasn’t trying to prove the existence of God, but more to show that Professor Krauss’s opinion that something came out of nothing is not true because there existed something (e.g. physical laws) that provided the necessary infrastructure for the something (our material universe) to come into being. For instance it is a theory in modern physics that particles such as electrons can be spontaneously created “ex nihilo” in a vacuum. However, these particles are not really coming out of nothing (nihilo), as it requires a certain amount of energy for the particle to come into existence. It turns out that a vacuum in space is believed to have an energy density (i.e. it contains energy which can spontaneously convert into matter) and therefore a vacuum in space is not, to my mind, “nothing”. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vacuum_energy). The energy is changed into matter (the electron) as per Einstein’s well known formula E = mc2. Prof Krauss presumably thinks that space (a vacuum) was ‘always there’ and its existence needs no explanation. I consider that a highly naive assumption and strongly disagree. Further, how and why does E = mc2 hold, for example?

Having said the above, there is a stronger argument at the meta level (i.e. stepping back a bit and looking at the problem from the outside). Consider a thought experiment. We simulate a universe similar to our own (in some type of computer for example). Whether that is in fact physically possible is not relevant to the argument. Let us call this simulated universe the Inner universe, and our actual universe the Outer universe. The Inner universe is entirely simulated in all dimensions i.e. all points in Inner space and time are simulated and observable by us so that we can look at any simulated point at any moment in simulated time. According to scientists of Professor Krauss’s ilk, life and even consciousness can evolve in such a universe. Let us therefore say that an entity very similar to Prof Krauss is found to have evolved in the Inner simulated universe. He sees a universe with exactly the same properties as our own. This entity, having a simulated brain very similar to Prof Krauss and observing a universe of the same laws as those of our own universe, makes the statement that his universe came into being entirely ex nihilo and therefore was not the result of an act of creation.

Well, clearly this Prof Krauss in the Inner universe is wrong, as we in the Outer universe created his universe. You see where this argument is going, we too are potentially in an Inner universe, and our Prof Krauss is equally as wrong as the one in our Inner universe. God (ultimately) created our Inner universe. We have absolutely no conception of what lies “outside” our universe and experimentation within our universe tells us nothing about how our universe came into being. We are entirely trapped in this universe and cannot see nor even have the faintest conception of what “exists” other than our universe (except by revelation).

It was noted that in my book A Message For Tuqa, I do not advance a proof for the existence of God.

Yes, in the Science chapter of my book A Message For Tuqa I do not attempt to prove the existence of God, but instead to place and picture science properly in a more accurate world-view, showing the limitations of science and how it is not as absolute as is commonly held. What I also try to explain, albeit very briefly, is how when we take modern science to its limit it claims to elaborate how a consciousness can evolve simply from the fundamental laws of physics, without needing any extra ‘magic’. I hold that this ‘clockwork’ consciousness whose thoughts unfold according to the laws of physics, and therefore has no free will, is unacceptable to me and more importantly, does not match my inner experience.

Given therefore that science does not answer the fundamental questions to which I sought answers, I turned to a recognition of my soul, and the creator of my soul. In the quran and the teachings of the prophet I found a sound compass as to where and how to seek further insight.

Where does faith come from?

Descartes famously said ‘cogito ergo sum’. He meant that the only experience we can be entirely sure of is the experience of being and having a self, because all incoming external sensations might be incorrect. AlGhazali preceded him with a similar insight. In Ghazali’s book almunqidh min aDDalaal (Deliverance From Error) he describes how as a young man he had a crisis of faith, which he kept to himself. He realised how little he could be sure of. He points out how faith, once lost, is like a shattered glass bowl which cannot be repaired but must be re-blown afresh. As he very briefly describes it, God cast a light into his breast and his faith was restored. He went on to respond to the challenge of Greek philosophical thought and wrote the hugely influential book iHyaa’ `uluum iddiin (Revival of the Religious Sciences). Once the naive belief in one’s parent’s religion is lost, we must re-blow a new world-view. There is no longer anyone to tell you what is truth or who can show that his way is clearly and obviously the right path. You must search within yourself, learn what you can of what seems most useful, try to walk the straight path of what you find to be true. You must constantly ask God, as we do in alFaatiHa, “Guide us on the straight path!”.

AlHamdulillaah I’ve finished my book A Message For Tuqa.

When a muslim sets off on the straight path he can be overwhelmed with the amount of information available and be left confused by divergent and sometimes controversial opinions.
Originally written by the author for his daughter, this book helps clear the confusion. It provides guidance on how to approach the huge body of knowledge presented to the muslim, understand why opinions diverge, and helps the seeker to keep focussed on the priorities.

What is terrorism?

A few points up front:
1) Killing innocent people is abhorrent and as muslims we totally shun it.
2) There are many things worse things than the ‘terrorism’ we see now – Hiroshima, the fire bombings of Dresden, Hamburg etc., large scale female infanticide etc., etc.
3) There is no universally agreed definition of terrorism vs murder.

Terrorism has been elevated as the worst sort of evil when in fact it is not. It has been elevated in this way because it becomes a convenient ‘justification’ for (particularly) when the government want to attack and/or invade a country or e.g. launch a massive spying operation on the general population.

In terms of our own internal reasoning about the world and what is right and wrong, for me terrorism is when a small group of people get together and attack the larger group of people to achieve a goal, often political. This is wrong and a disaster for the entire society.

If the state goes about the systematic killing of civilians then that is often labelled as state terrorism, perhaps because people have come to think that the biggest accusation/crime is ‘terrorism’ and therefore it’s best to call it that to get the best effect.

The word has become totally degraded to the point of being useless. It’s just a jingoistic expression to lump all resistance into the same group as mindless murderers of civilians – e.g. compare what Hamas do to WWII bombings etc., and what Israel does. Hamas is labelled terrorist (and they do target civilians) but the UK/US/Israel (who also target civilians) are not.

To my mind all targeting of civilians by whatever actors is to be abhorred. Modern warfare is an abomination, nail bombs, cooker bombs, chemical weapons, nuclear weapons, daisy cutters, barrel bombings, automatic weapons, drones, tanks, mass killing, destruction of entire cities – a truly foul collection.

Year by year the many ways of communicating with others, both friends and strangers, increases and become easier. Likewise the media has an increasing impact on our lives, to the extent that it can now introduce serious and challenging problems. I want to talk about four areas, that are increasingly overlapping:

  • The Television
  • The Internet
  • The Mobile Phone
  • The News

The Television

24:30

Surat anNur, 24:30-31 – “Tell the believing men to reduce [some] of their vision and guard their private parts. That is purer for them. Indeed, Allah is Acquainted with what they do.”

and in the next ayat:

“And tell the believing women to reduce [some] of their vision and guard their private parts and not expose their adornment except that which [necessarily] appears thereof and to wrap [a portion of] their headcovers over their chests and not expose their adornment except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands’ fathers, their sons, their husbands’ sons, their brothers, their brothers’ sons, their sisters’ sons, their women, that which their right hands possess, or those male attendants having no physical desire, or children who are not yet aware of the private aspects of women. And let them not stamp their feet to make known what they conceal of their adornment. And turn to Allah in repentance, all of you, O believers, that you might succeed”

Here I’m talking about video content designed for mass consumption. Until recently this has almost exclusively been viewed in the home through the television, but this content is now available through many other channels such as the internet and mobile phones. It is largely paid for by advertising (the content producers and broadcasters are selling eyeballs to the advertisers) or by subscription or tax (such as in the UK with the TV licence).

With the many changes in attitudes in recent decades, firstly in the sixties with the so called ‘sexual revolution’ and more recently with the widespread consumption of pornography, the images and story lines being presented to us are further and further from Islamic norms. If we allow ourselves to consume a steady diet of this type of programming we become accustomed to such debased material and our standards can, internally, sink to the same level.

On a more mundane note, but also very serious, we can end up wasting large amounts of time in front of these programmes, gaining no benefit whatsoever.

The Prophet (pbuh) said:
“Take benefit of five before five:
your youth before your old age,
your health before your sickness,
your wealth before your poverty,
your free-time before your preoccupation,
and your life before your death.”

My advice regarding the TV and related programming:

  • Try to watch less and less TV, replacing it with reading. The ultimate goal is to stop watching these types of programmes altogether.
  • Avoid watching programmes that contain sexual content – this information is now available in the TV guide so use it.
  • Be very conscious of the younger members of the household, you’re giving tacit approval to them of the behaviour that you sit and watch on TV for entertainment. It’s no good condemning something to them and then paying rapt attention to the bad behaviour on the TV that you condemned before.
  • Don’t watch the adverts – I achieve this easily by only watching recordings on a PVR where I can skip the adverts with the touch of a button. If you can’t do that the turn off the volume when the adverts are running. It’s amazing how the effect of the advert is reduced when there is no sound.

The Internet

We all know the obvious dangers of the internet.

  • Marriages have broken up when spouses create new relationships on the internet with strangers they have never met physically. Men and women in particular can mix much more freely and easily, and inappropriate emotions can develop unexpectedly.  Chat rooms and instant messaging make illicit communication simple and quick.
  • The internet is choc-a-bloc with images that are totally forbidden for a muslim to view. It is so prevalent on even ‘everyday’ web sites that it is very easy to become accustomed to seeing men and women in many states of undress, and ultimately become totally mentally saturated and desensitised to these images.

There are other privacy related dangers too:

  • All the web sites that we visit, and searches that we conduct, are stored by the ISP for a few years, in case the police request access to it. You can be prosecuted now for simply reading some material, and what you viewed can be taken out of context and used against you, especially if you are a muslim.
  • Such data is also routinely intercepted by GCHQ and the NSA, together with, no doubt, numerous other spying agencies. Some of the largest data centres in the world are maintained by these people.
  • As we know from the PRISM scandal much of our data such as private emails that we trust to Google, Apple, Microsft, Yahoo etc., is available to these same agencies. The SSL certificates of these organisations are almost certainly known to the main spying agencies, meaning that even when we are supposedly engaging in encrypted transactions (where the URL starts https:// instead of http://) the spying agencies can read it clearly.
  • Social media posts on sites such as Facebook can’t be really deleted and can prove a source of future embarassment, or even can cause problems with future employment as prospective employers seek out your social media postings.

My advice regarding the internet is:

  • Protect everyone in the family from inappropriate browsing and chatting on the internet by keeping the main internet device such as the PC in a place such as the lounge, where doors are not closed and the whole family can see what is going on. The default policy for waht we do on the internet is Public – we should not be ashamed for anyone to see what we have said or (harder) seen on the net.
  • Don’t maintain email or messaging accounts that your spouse cannot see. Keep these easily viewed by the spouse, and it protects you and your spouse from even thinking about sending inappropriate messages.
  • Install plugins such as AdBlock and FlashBlock that cut out adverts, both static and dynamic. The web site will load much more quickly too. You can also disable the loading of all images if you wish.
  • Think very hard before posting social material on the internet, could it pose a problem or be embarrassing to anyone now or in the future?

The Mobile Phone

  • The mobile phone, or smart-phone, has become a route to the TV programmes and internet activities such as chat and messaging that I have already mentioned. Because the phone can be carried to private places it presents all sorts of dangers. Be alert to those for yourself, spouse and children. One brother said to me, when I warned him about it, ‘but muslim kids wouldn’t do that!’. I don’t agree that being muslim gives us invulnerability to such things, so be vigilant, particularly for ourselves.

The News

49:6

“O you who believe! if an evil-doer comes to you with a report, look carefully into it, lest you harm a people in ignorance, then be sorry for what you have done.”

We should be aware that the western media tends to pick up stories about muslims, and then casts an anti-Islamic stance over the story.

As I mentioned in a previous post, the news (as excellently expressed in the original article http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2013/apr/12/news-is-bad-rolf-dobelli) :

  • News misleads – A car drives over a bridge, and the bridge collapses. What does the news media focus on? The car. The person in the car.
  • News is irrelevant – Out of the approximately 10,000 news stories you have read in the last 12 months, name one that – because you consumed it – allowed you to make a better decision about a serious matter affecting your life, your career or your business.
  • News has no explanatory power – Will accumulating facts help you understand the world? Sadly, no. The relationship is inverted. The important stories are non-stories: slow, powerful movements
  • News is toxic to your body – It constantly triggers the limbic system. Panicky stories spur the release of cascades of glucocorticoid (cortisol). This deregulates your immune system and inhibits the release of growth hormones (chronic stress)
  • News increases cognitive errors – News feeds the mother of all cognitive errors: confirmation bias
  • News inhibits thinking – Thinking requires concentration. Concentration requires uninterrupted time. News pieces are specifically engineered to interrupt you. They are like viruses that steal attention for their own purposes.
  • News works like a drug – As stories develop, we want to know how they continue. With hundreds of arbitrary storylines in our heads, this craving is increasingly compelling and hard to ignore
  • News wastes time
  • News makes us passive – News stories are overwhelmingly about things you cannot influence
  • News kills creativity – Finally, things we already know limit our creativity. This is one reason that mathematicians, novelists, composers and entrepreneurs often produce their most creative works at a young age
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