Islam


Sister Walaa has interviewed a fair number of attendees at various Sufi retreats, and presents her results largely unprocessed for us to draw our own conclusions. Her talk, in content and in choice of topic, touched on a lot of subjects that have been on my mind for a while. In a somewhat random order:

One of the YouTtube commentators was amused by attendees not understanding the content of one of the talks, but actually this is, IMO, perfectly OK and touches on the subjects of authenticity and authentication. When we look for a teacher / scholar we want the transmitted knowlege to be authentic, and we want the teacher / scholar to be someone we can respect. One of the ways we judge that, ISTM, is by the breadth of their knowledge, how deeply they themselves seem to understand it, and how clearly and well they can explain it. Often we may not understand the content ourselves, but we know it is good stuff :-). This validates our choice of teacher. The relationship between sheikh and student in Western Islamic circles is an important topic.

But what strikes me mainly when watching this presentation is the topic itself and the thought processes behind it. Also, for those of us finding the talk interesting, what does that say about us? Sister Walaa has “gone meta”, she has stepped back from the content of digesting Islamic knowledge, to how we go about finding that knowledge, how we address our spiritual needs here in the West. How do we fill the voids that we find within ourselves? She has stepped back and introduced a level of abstraction and distance to provide a space to assess how successful that process has been. This is a double-edged sword, because to conduct this kind of external analysis admits that some truth is to be found _outside_ the inner circle, thereby undermining one of the premisses of the inner circle itself. (ISTM).

So, I’m calling her meta card (though I suspect it was played more by her supervisor than herself) and raising her another meta :-). I’m reminded of a recent talk by Sheikh Hamza Yusuf where he refers to the faith of “old ladies”, meaning a simple, immediate, deep and unquestioning (in a good way) belief. Once we raise our gaze beyond that simple belief we open ourselves to a spectrum of other ideas, and we need to somehow locate ourselves on that spectrum, to our own satisfaction. This is a balancing act! I feel that the well known scholars are doing this balancing act themselves, but they do not disclose their thought processes to the general public as that would present difficulties to many people. We catch shadows of their thinking in some of their almost off-the-cuff remarks.

For some time now I believe that for the sake of the next generation of muslims, our children and potential converts, we need to offer a way to navigate these challenging thought processes without simply leaving everything unspoken. Mmmm..

PART II

Ploughing on with this a little further, I believe that the intellectual process and development that we go through across our lives undergoes a natural and in fact inevitable evolution through learning more detail, lived experience, abstraction and extracting patterns to the things that we see. Actually for me I now see the process of forming mental models of our experiences and the “worlds” we live in as something that is actually universal in the way we think about things, and for me this is a critical insight because, I believe, it affects everything we think and it applies to all of us.

Because of this automatic and unconscious mental process of forming models and abstractions to aid us in understanding the world and predicting future outcomes, the siting of our mental selves within multiple somewhat competing and overlapping models is unavoidable. When we first really engage with Islam we have a necessarily simple view of it, because we don’t yet know that much. Maybe we think it’s all about “Quran and Sunna”, or following an almost all-knowing sheikh. We know Iman is so important but we mistakenly tie it into having a simple and uncritical belief, uncritical in the sense that we are prepared to overlook cognitive dissonances that come up, and indeed actively avoid them so as to avoid the fallout. This is exaggerated in the current muslim intellectual milieu because an uncritical belief is often demanded by our parents or those in a position of intellectual authority in the Islamic world. If you step out of that very particular world view then you lose social authority and capital. Actually, this is as much as feature as a bug, but still should be recognised and admitted. For many people, and this is in many ways a good thing, an uncritical acceptance of a particular sheikh, for instance, is a benefit, and spares them from confronting the messy details of the hairier corners of some parts of the intellectual world that their label ties them to. However, for some, like me, it is not enough.

The good news is though that we can always turn to Allah, alHamdulillah. Through my own experience I think we can and should recognise the validity, reality and competing nature of many different mental models within our mind, but we place tawheed and the unity of Allah, avoidance of shirk etc., as our #1 model. I place the traditional Islamic view and regulations as a vital, primal and governing model, but understand that aspects come from the world views, experiences and mental models of scholars from other places and times. I recognise that my life has its own unique demands that no-one else has ever faced, and the same applies to everyone else. I think this is a _better_ foundation of belief because it is more resilient for me, and also provides a way forward for those in an environment less amenable to the traditional way of life (let’s say). We can allow people to live on the spectrum between simple montheism and the “Complete” Islamic life, moving ISA in the right direction but not cutting out people who are further away.

As I said in my previous comment, to acknowledge an abstraction and external mental model about a system of thoughts is to simultaneously draw authority away from the foundations of that belief, because we are granting the possiblity of finding more fundamental truth outside of it. This is dangerous when it comes to religious thinking! However, what I am saying is that rather than place our trust in certain people, groups or books we place our trust in Allah more directly and centrally and build out from there, with more peripheral models being allowed to have doubt applied to them without it spoiling the fruits that they are offering.

In fact I believe that most of humanity instinctively view things in the way I have described, but when we associate with a particular group we get sucked into saying that certain things MUST be done like this, said this like. This makes dealing with people outside the group very hard, and there is no need for that. We can be kind and generous in spirit to everyone. Hence we see a certain harshness coming from our group, but warmth coming from people of no affiliation at all!

I really do believe that this approach is closer to the prophetic example than the way Islam is usually and traditionally presented as a kind of academic subject.

What does the word ‘spirit’ mean to an English person, particularly from a religious perspective?

    • Something that can possess people: The New Testament, Mark 9:25

And when Jesus saw that a crowd came running together, he rebuked the unclean spirit, saying to it, “You mute and deaf spirit, I command you, come out of him and never enter him again.”

The New Testament was written in Greek, and the Greek word used for spirit was πνεῦμα (pneuma) meaning, in traditional Greek, a movement of air (breath, wind).

  • Liquor, i.e. alcoholic drinks: spirit in this sense goes back to when chemistry (known then as alchemy) was reaching European shores from the Middle East. The muslim scientists said that, during chemical reactions, a vapour was given off. The translation of this vapour was ‘spirit’ – The word for vapour at that time in the Arabic being (I believe) روح (ruḥ), usually translated as ‘soul’ . This word is linked to the word ريح (riḥ) meaning ‘wind’.
  • Going back to the Old Testament and Judaism we have two relevant words, nafash and ruah. These are obviously cognates to the arabic words نفس (nafs) and روح (ruḥ) – see more here and here.

In the English language the word ‘spirit’ derives from the Latin spirare, to blow. There are many other derivative meanings in English, here’s just a few:

  • Spiritual world
  • In good spirits
  • Spirited defence
  • Inspired, inspiration

Clearly, then, the English word spirit has a similar root (in terms of meaning) as has the Arabic word for soul i.e. روح (ruḥ). Allah says in the Qur’aan:

alHijr 15:29

فَإِذَا سَوَّيْتُهُ وَنَفَخْتُ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِي فَقَعُوا لَهُ سَاجِدِينَ

translated as:

“When I have fashioned him (in due proportion) and breathed into him of My spirit, fall ye down in obeisance unto him.”

i.e. both spirit and the Arabic word for soul روح (ruḥ) have connotations of breath, wind.

I found the following answer from Sheikh Hamza Yusuf very interesting:

Shaykh Hamza Yusuf – Modern idea of re-establishing Shariah Hudood Punishments

I agree with the Sheikh wholeheartedly, applying many of the Hudood (حدود) punishments to the muslims living in the modern world would, in these times, lack mercy (رحمة) due to the fact that the all-consuming material culture we are in has corrupted us too much to be held to these noble standards. As a consequence we should, in these times and this culture, refrain from their implementation. He also points out that the noble way of the companions of the Prophet, may God be pleased with them,  was to try to hide violations of the Hudood, not to go hunting for them and to force them into the public. I strongly recommend viewing the whole video.

 

In a thread on DeenPort we were asked for comments on Prof Krauss’ book  A Universe from Nothing in which he claims that according to modern physics the universe could have spontaneously come into existence without any act of creation. My simple response was to ask, how did the laws of physics come into existence?

Mansoor Malik brought to our attention the excellent critique of the book here:

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/cross-check/p hysicist-george-ellis-knocks-physicists-for-knock ing-philosophy-falsification-free-will/

Here I capture some further thoughts about the issue.

The scientist who gives the opinion in the linked article is a Christian, however I believe that most atheist scientists would also strongly agree with the thrust of the article.

When I asked where the laws of physics came from, I wasn’t trying to prove the existence of God, but more to show that Professor Krauss’s opinion that something came out of nothing is not true because there existed something (e.g. physical laws) that provided the necessary infrastructure for the something (our material universe) to come into being. For instance it is a theory in modern physics that particles such as electrons can be spontaneously created “ex nihilo” in a vacuum. However, these particles are not really coming out of nothing (nihilo), as it requires a certain amount of energy for the particle to come into existence. It turns out that a vacuum in space is believed to have an energy density (i.e. it contains energy which can spontaneously convert into matter) and therefore a vacuum in space is not, to my mind, “nothing”. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vacuum_energy). The energy is changed into matter (the electron) as per Einstein’s well known formula E = mc2. Prof Krauss presumably thinks that space (a vacuum) was ‘always there’ and its existence needs no explanation. I consider that a highly naive assumption and strongly disagree. Further, how and why does E = mc2 hold, for example?

Having said the above, there is a stronger argument at the meta level (i.e. stepping back a bit and looking at the problem from the outside). Consider a thought experiment. We simulate a universe similar to our own (in some type of computer for example). Whether that is in fact physically possible is not relevant to the argument. Let us call this simulated universe the Inner universe, and our actual universe the Outer universe. The Inner universe is entirely simulated in all dimensions i.e. all points in Inner space and time are simulated and observable by us so that we can look at any simulated point at any moment in simulated time. According to scientists of Professor Krauss’s ilk, life and even consciousness can evolve in such a universe. Let us therefore say that an entity very similar to Prof Krauss is found to have evolved in the Inner simulated universe. He sees a universe with exactly the same properties as our own. This entity, having a simulated brain very similar to Prof Krauss and observing a universe of the same laws as those of our own universe, makes the statement that his universe came into being entirely ex nihilo and therefore was not the result of an act of creation.

Well, clearly this Prof Krauss in the Inner universe is wrong, as we in the Outer universe created his universe. You see where this argument is going, we too are potentially in an Inner universe, and our Prof Krauss is equally as wrong as the one in our Inner universe. God (ultimately) created our Inner universe. We have absolutely no conception of what lies “outside” our universe and experimentation within our universe tells us nothing about how our universe came into being. We are entirely trapped in this universe and cannot see nor even have the faintest conception of what “exists” other than our universe (except by revelation).

It was noted that in my book A Message For Tuqa, I do not advance a proof for the existence of God.

Yes, in the Science chapter of my book A Message For Tuqa I do not attempt to prove the existence of God, but instead to place and picture science properly in a more accurate world-view, showing the limitations of science and how it is not as absolute as is commonly held. What I also try to explain, albeit very briefly, is how when we take modern science to its limit it claims to elaborate how a consciousness can evolve simply from the fundamental laws of physics, without needing any extra ‘magic’. I hold that this ‘clockwork’ consciousness whose thoughts unfold according to the laws of physics, and therefore has no free will, is unacceptable to me and more importantly, does not match my inner experience.

Given therefore that science does not answer the fundamental questions to which I sought answers, I turned to a recognition of my soul, and the creator of my soul. In the quran and the teachings of the prophet I found a sound compass as to where and how to seek further insight.

Where does faith come from?

Descartes famously said ‘cogito ergo sum’. He meant that the only experience we can be entirely sure of is the experience of being and having a self, because all incoming external sensations might be incorrect. AlGhazali preceded him with a similar insight. In Ghazali’s book almunqidh min aDDalaal (Deliverance From Error) he describes how as a young man he had a crisis of faith, which he kept to himself. He realised how little he could be sure of. He points out how faith, once lost, is like a shattered glass bowl which cannot be repaired but must be re-blown afresh. As he very briefly describes it, God cast a light into his breast and his faith was restored. He went on to respond to the challenge of Greek philosophical thought and wrote the hugely influential book iHyaa’ `uluum iddiin (Revival of the Religious Sciences). Once the naive belief in one’s parent’s religion is lost, we must re-blow a new world-view. There is no longer anyone to tell you what is truth or who can show that his way is clearly and obviously the right path. You must search within yourself, learn what you can of what seems most useful, try to walk the straight path of what you find to be true. You must constantly ask God, as we do in alFaatiHa, “Guide us on the straight path!”.

AlHamdulillaah I’ve finished my book A Message For Tuqa.

When a muslim sets off on the straight path he can be overwhelmed with the amount of information available and be left confused by divergent and sometimes controversial opinions.
Originally written by the author for his daughter, this book helps clear the confusion. It provides guidance on how to approach the huge body of knowledge presented to the muslim, understand why opinions diverge, and helps the seeker to keep focussed on the priorities.

What is terrorism?

A few points up front:
1) Killing innocent people is abhorrent and as muslims we totally shun it.
2) There are many things worse things than the ‘terrorism’ we see now – Hiroshima, the fire bombings of Dresden, Hamburg etc., large scale female infanticide etc., etc.
3) There is no universally agreed definition of terrorism vs murder.

Terrorism has been elevated as the worst sort of evil when in fact it is not. It has been elevated in this way because it becomes a convenient ‘justification’ for (particularly) when the government want to attack and/or invade a country or e.g. launch a massive spying operation on the general population.

In terms of our own internal reasoning about the world and what is right and wrong, for me terrorism is when a small group of people get together and attack the larger group of people to achieve a goal, often political. This is wrong and a disaster for the entire society.

If the state goes about the systematic killing of civilians then that is often labelled as state terrorism, perhaps because people have come to think that the biggest accusation/crime is ‘terrorism’ and therefore it’s best to call it that to get the best effect.

The word has become totally degraded to the point of being useless. It’s just a jingoistic expression to lump all resistance into the same group as mindless murderers of civilians – e.g. compare what Hamas do to WWII bombings etc., and what Israel does. Hamas is labelled terrorist (and they do target civilians) but the UK/US/Israel (who also target civilians) are not.

To my mind all targeting of civilians by whatever actors is to be abhorred. Modern warfare is an abomination, nail bombs, cooker bombs, chemical weapons, nuclear weapons, daisy cutters, barrel bombings, automatic weapons, drones, tanks, mass killing, destruction of entire cities – a truly foul collection.

Year by year the many ways of communicating with others, both friends and strangers, increases and become easier. Likewise the media has an increasing impact on our lives, to the extent that it can now introduce serious and challenging problems. I want to talk about four areas, that are increasingly overlapping:

  • The Television
  • The Internet
  • The Mobile Phone
  • The News

The Television

24:30

Surat anNur, 24:30-31 – “Tell the believing men to reduce [some] of their vision and guard their private parts. That is purer for them. Indeed, Allah is Acquainted with what they do.”

and in the next ayat:

“And tell the believing women to reduce [some] of their vision and guard their private parts and not expose their adornment except that which [necessarily] appears thereof and to wrap [a portion of] their headcovers over their chests and not expose their adornment except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands’ fathers, their sons, their husbands’ sons, their brothers, their brothers’ sons, their sisters’ sons, their women, that which their right hands possess, or those male attendants having no physical desire, or children who are not yet aware of the private aspects of women. And let them not stamp their feet to make known what they conceal of their adornment. And turn to Allah in repentance, all of you, O believers, that you might succeed”

Here I’m talking about video content designed for mass consumption. Until recently this has almost exclusively been viewed in the home through the television, but this content is now available through many other channels such as the internet and mobile phones. It is largely paid for by advertising (the content producers and broadcasters are selling eyeballs to the advertisers) or by subscription or tax (such as in the UK with the TV licence).

With the many changes in attitudes in recent decades, firstly in the sixties with the so called ‘sexual revolution’ and more recently with the widespread consumption of pornography, the images and story lines being presented to us are further and further from Islamic norms. If we allow ourselves to consume a steady diet of this type of programming we become accustomed to such debased material and our standards can, internally, sink to the same level.

On a more mundane note, but also very serious, we can end up wasting large amounts of time in front of these programmes, gaining no benefit whatsoever.

The Prophet (pbuh) said:
“Take benefit of five before five:
your youth before your old age,
your health before your sickness,
your wealth before your poverty,
your free-time before your preoccupation,
and your life before your death.”

My advice regarding the TV and related programming:

  • Try to watch less and less TV, replacing it with reading. The ultimate goal is to stop watching these types of programmes altogether.
  • Avoid watching programmes that contain sexual content – this information is now available in the TV guide so use it.
  • Be very conscious of the younger members of the household, you’re giving tacit approval to them of the behaviour that you sit and watch on TV for entertainment. It’s no good condemning something to them and then paying rapt attention to the bad behaviour on the TV that you condemned before.
  • Don’t watch the adverts – I achieve this easily by only watching recordings on a PVR where I can skip the adverts with the touch of a button. If you can’t do that the turn off the volume when the adverts are running. It’s amazing how the effect of the advert is reduced when there is no sound.

The Internet

We all know the obvious dangers of the internet.

  • Marriages have broken up when spouses create new relationships on the internet with strangers they have never met physically. Men and women in particular can mix much more freely and easily, and inappropriate emotions can develop unexpectedly.  Chat rooms and instant messaging make illicit communication simple and quick.
  • The internet is choc-a-bloc with images that are totally forbidden for a muslim to view. It is so prevalent on even ‘everyday’ web sites that it is very easy to become accustomed to seeing men and women in many states of undress, and ultimately become totally mentally saturated and desensitised to these images.

There are other privacy related dangers too:

  • All the web sites that we visit, and searches that we conduct, are stored by the ISP for a few years, in case the police request access to it. You can be prosecuted now for simply reading some material, and what you viewed can be taken out of context and used against you, especially if you are a muslim.
  • Such data is also routinely intercepted by GCHQ and the NSA, together with, no doubt, numerous other spying agencies. Some of the largest data centres in the world are maintained by these people.
  • As we know from the PRISM scandal much of our data such as private emails that we trust to Google, Apple, Microsft, Yahoo etc., is available to these same agencies. The SSL certificates of these organisations are almost certainly known to the main spying agencies, meaning that even when we are supposedly engaging in encrypted transactions (where the URL starts https:// instead of http://) the spying agencies can read it clearly.
  • Social media posts on sites such as Facebook can’t be really deleted and can prove a source of future embarassment, or even can cause problems with future employment as prospective employers seek out your social media postings.

My advice regarding the internet is:

  • Protect everyone in the family from inappropriate browsing and chatting on the internet by keeping the main internet device such as the PC in a place such as the lounge, where doors are not closed and the whole family can see what is going on. The default policy for waht we do on the internet is Public – we should not be ashamed for anyone to see what we have said or (harder) seen on the net.
  • Don’t maintain email or messaging accounts that your spouse cannot see. Keep these easily viewed by the spouse, and it protects you and your spouse from even thinking about sending inappropriate messages.
  • Install plugins such as AdBlock and FlashBlock that cut out adverts, both static and dynamic. The web site will load much more quickly too. You can also disable the loading of all images if you wish.
  • Think very hard before posting social material on the internet, could it pose a problem or be embarrassing to anyone now or in the future?

The Mobile Phone

  • The mobile phone, or smart-phone, has become a route to the TV programmes and internet activities such as chat and messaging that I have already mentioned. Because the phone can be carried to private places it presents all sorts of dangers. Be alert to those for yourself, spouse and children. One brother said to me, when I warned him about it, ‘but muslim kids wouldn’t do that!’. I don’t agree that being muslim gives us invulnerability to such things, so be vigilant, particularly for ourselves.

The News

49:6

“O you who believe! if an evil-doer comes to you with a report, look carefully into it, lest you harm a people in ignorance, then be sorry for what you have done.”

We should be aware that the western media tends to pick up stories about muslims, and then casts an anti-Islamic stance over the story.

As I mentioned in a previous post, the news (as excellently expressed in the original article http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2013/apr/12/news-is-bad-rolf-dobelli) :

  • News misleads – A car drives over a bridge, and the bridge collapses. What does the news media focus on? The car. The person in the car.
  • News is irrelevant – Out of the approximately 10,000 news stories you have read in the last 12 months, name one that – because you consumed it – allowed you to make a better decision about a serious matter affecting your life, your career or your business.
  • News has no explanatory power – Will accumulating facts help you understand the world? Sadly, no. The relationship is inverted. The important stories are non-stories: slow, powerful movements
  • News is toxic to your body – It constantly triggers the limbic system. Panicky stories spur the release of cascades of glucocorticoid (cortisol). This deregulates your immune system and inhibits the release of growth hormones (chronic stress)
  • News increases cognitive errors – News feeds the mother of all cognitive errors: confirmation bias
  • News inhibits thinking – Thinking requires concentration. Concentration requires uninterrupted time. News pieces are specifically engineered to interrupt you. They are like viruses that steal attention for their own purposes.
  • News works like a drug – As stories develop, we want to know how they continue. With hundreds of arbitrary storylines in our heads, this craving is increasingly compelling and hard to ignore
  • News wastes time
  • News makes us passive – News stories are overwhelmingly about things you cannot influence
  • News kills creativity – Finally, things we already know limit our creativity. This is one reason that mathematicians, novelists, composers and entrepreneurs often produce their most creative works at a young age

I enjoyed reading this article about the home office setups of journalists and editors working for Ars Technica. I thought I’d share mine, largely as a kind of personal history:

(With all photos, click to see full detail)

I’m using Ubuntu Linux, I’ve used linux as my primary OS for a very long time, and am using Ubuntu through laziness on my part. The prayer time widget in the top left hand corner of the left screen is one I developed myself (kprayertime). Below it is a moon phase widget, you can see it was just after the middle of the lunar month when I wrote this (in the blessed month of Ramadan). You can also see a weather widget that tells me it’s raining a lot in Bristol – well, I already knew that. Various items belonging to my daughter and wife are scattered on the desk, every few days I have to ‘send’ things back to their owners, usually by throwing them onto the respective bed. The desk lamp was given to me by my friend Zubair. There’s an uber mouse mat with the map of the world, that is now up-side down. An IKEA clock and Aldi watch can be seen, together with some Kumon homework.

Here you can see my wife’s books, and others about science, the philosphy and history of science and other miscellanea. Notable books for me in terms of my personal development are “Godel, Escher and Bach” and “Complexity, Entropy and the Physics of Information”.

Here we have a distilled collection of IT books. Such is the ephemeral nature of IT books that recently I gave/threw away two thousand pounds worth (well, spent) of IT text books due to lack of space in the flat. Below those is the books I studied during my physics degree, and some travel books below them. In the early 1990s I bought the book “The Science of Fractal Images” at Foyles in London. I spent many Saturday afternoons up and down Charing Cross Rd (also eating far too many pizzas at the Pizza Hut there) and bought my first islamic book at The Middle-Eastern Bookshop at the south end of the road. I think it was ‘The Book of Knowledge’, the first book in Imam alGhazali’s Ihyaa’. I also bought various books by Muhammad Asad including his translation of the Qur’aan. I think it’s fair to say that these books still have a great influence on me. Subhaan Allaah when I look back at my life there are definitely times when I was guided like an arrow to the straight path, in terms of knowledge and people.

This bookcase largely contains miscellanea, including various books about language in general, which is an interest of mine. The maps are there because when I travel I like to keep the maps that I used, as a memento. A number of the linguistics books are my wife’s, whose PhD thesis (in arabic-english linguistics) can also be seen.

Here we have various islamic books and below them some arabic language learning resources. I now teach arabic to beginners and intermediate level, while continually trying to improve my own level of arabic too.

We’re getting on to pride of place now, these books and those you can see below are on either side of me when I am doing my prayers, reading the Qur’aan or meditating on life, the universe and everything :-). There are numerous translations of Imam alGhazali, particularly from his Ihyaa’. A notable book is Searching For Solace, a biography of Yusuf Ali. A sad tale but which somehow sums up the state of the muslim world at the moment. Various books by Charles Le Gai Eaton, who I think writes beautifully about islam and explains it so well to the Western mind. Because he has some heterodox views he is not promoted by the muslims, which is a shame.

We’ve reached some truly great books now. Bottom left in blue and white are some grammar and morphology books by Antoine Dahdah. I love those books. We then have various less technical books about iman and other important islamic topics. Above them we have Sharh wa Tahleel of alHikam al`Ataa`iyya by Dr Ramadan Buti (they’re up-side down too – how did they get like that!) which is an explanation of the great book by Ibn `Ataa’illaahi alIskandariyya. My wife chose many of these books when we came back from Syria. There are the five volumes of Sufficient For Seekers of the Path of Truth which is a fine translation of the great book AlGhunya.

Pride of place, of course, goes to the masaahif (copies of the Qur’aan) and tafaaseer (explanations of the Qur’aan). For those who can’t read arabic the red and gold volumes are Tafseer utTabari, an explanation of the Qur’aan largely based on hadith narrated about the meaning of each ayat. The black and gold volumes are Lisaan al`Arab, a wonderful (and huge) dictionary of arabic. There are hundred of thousands of words, often accompanied by arabic poetry (or hadith or ayats) giving an example of the word in use. At the top, physically and metaphorically, are the masaahif, copies of the noble Qur’aan.

Writing the above has made me realise why I cart some of these older books around, even though in a sense they represent a skin that has been shed. They are a part of my history and remind me of the times when I was reading them. They serve as a type of authentication that my islam is not based on an ignorance of the pinnacle of Western knowledge, but as an ascent from it to higher goals.

If you enjoyed this post then please do something similar yourself and let me know!

P.S. my wife is complaining about the mess in the photos, but I wanted it to be ‘as-it-is’ 😉

An interesting essay on how too much focus on a particular `aqeeda can be a negative thing.

I am honored to share the following insightful reflections and observations, on a topic that is usually approached in a divisive manner, from my esteemed teacher Dr Mohammad Akram Nadwi. Although this blog normally serves to share my personal writings and work, I feel that in this case,  Dr Akram took the ideas straight out of my heart and expressed them in words I could never have come up with. So I share them here for my esteemed readers, reproduced from the Nadwi Foundation.

Some Reflections on ‘Aqidah

All Rights Reserved.

© Mohammad Akram Nadwi, Oxford

A creed is a special kind of formal statement of religious belief or collection of such statements. A very good and justly famous creed among the Sunnis is the document known as al-‘Aqidah al-Tahawiyyah. I will be discussing it at some length. First I wish to clarify the framework in which I will present…

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A khutba of the husband’s obligations towards his wife,  using summarised extracts from one chapter of the very good book  “The Fragile Vessels” by Muhammad alJibaly

Image

Prior to Islam

In societies that had deviated from the straight path women were considered a tradeable commodity. Similarly during the arab period of jáhiliyya prior to the advent of Islam, the woman’s position was extremely poor, being considered part of her father’s or husband’s property. AlHamdulillaah with the coming of the prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, the right position of women was upheld and established.

With Islam came the sound way for men and women to deal with each other. Before going over the specific rights of the wife over her husband let’s first look at some Islamic qualities that apply especially between a man and a wife:

  • Good manners

Good manners are a distinctive characteristic of the religion of Islam. Abu Hurayrah reported that the prophet said:

“I have only been sent by Allah to complete the good manners” (ibn Sa`d, alHaakim)

He also said: “The best among the believers are those with the best manners” (Ibn Majah)

  • Truthfulness

Allah swt praises truthfulness in many places of His Book, and condemns liars.

  • Humbleness
  • Mercy and Kindness

The two spouses should show utmost compassion and mercy towards each other. They should be quick to overlook faults and forgive each other. The prophet pbuh said:

“The merciful ones are granted mercy by the Most Merciful (arRahmaan). Show mercy to those who are on Earth, and the One above the heavens will show mercy to you”

  • Avoid arguing and quarrelling

Frequent arguing and quarrelling is a sure way to undermine the ties between the married couple and should therefore be avoided. The prophet is reported to have said

“I am a guarantor of a house on the outskirts of Jannah for one who abandons arguing, even if he is right; and a house in the center of Jannah for one who abandons lying, even if he is joking; and a house in the highest place of Jannah for one who has good manners” (Abu Dawud)

The Obligations

Now lets look at the specific rights of the wife over her husband. The prophet  said:
إنّما النّساء شقائق الرجال

“Indeed women are the full sisters of men”

“I strongly admonish you in regards to the right of the weak ones – the orphan and the woman”

“You have rights on your women, and your women have rights on you”

We have traditions from the prophet (peace be upon him) relating to the rights that our wives have in all the following areas:

  • Protection

Security and safety are most important for a human being. One needs to feel reasonably secure in order to function normally and perform one’s regular tasks: Quran 4:34:

الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَآءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بَعضَهُم عَلَىٰ بَعضٍ۬ وَبِمَآ أَنفَقُواْ مِن أَموالِهِم

<<Men are caretakers of women, since Allah has made some of them excel the others, and because of the wealth they have spent>>

  • Ghayrah

As a demonstration of a man’s love towards his wife he should have ghayrah for her. Ghayrah is the great concern about her well-being, and the zeal to protect her from anything that might harm her person such as an evil touch, word or look.

  • Avoiding unnecessary suspicion

The prophet said: “When one of you is back from a long journey, he should not suddenly come to his family by night” (Bukhari, Muslim)

  • Safeguarding her secrets

It is greatly prohibited for a man to expose is wife’s secrets, especially in matters of privacy that no person would normally know except the husband, such as birthmarks, reaction to some intimate action etc.

  • Financial Support

One of the husbands major responsibilities towards his wife and family is providing financial support. The prophet said:

“They have a right on you – that you provide them with food and clothing in a fitting manner” (Muslim, Abu Dawud)

This support is in accordance with his capability, Allah swt says (2:286):

لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفسًا إِلَّا وُسعَهَا‌

<<Allah does not burden a person beyond his capacity>>

  • Self-sufficiency

A man must seriously view his financial responsibility toward his wife and family. He should not look to others for help before he has exhausted all possible means of becoming independent and self-sufficient. Self-sufficiency brings a feeling of security and dignity to the whole family.

Abu Hurayrah may Allah be pleased with him, said that the prophet (peace and blessings upon him) said:

وَاللَّهِ لأَنْ يَغْدُوَ أَحَدُكُمْ فَيَحْتَطِبَ عَلَى ظَهْرِهِ فَيَبِيعَهُ ، فَيَسْتَغْنِيَ مِنْهُ ، أَوْ يَتَصَدَّقَ بِهِ ، خَيْرٌ لَهُ مِنْ أَنْ يَأْتِيَ رَجُلا فَيَسْأَلَهُ ، فَيَمْنَعَهُ ذَلِكَ ، إِنَّ الْيَدَ الْعُلْيَا خَيْرٌ مِنَ الْيَدِ السُّفْلَى ، وَابْدَأْ بِمَنْ تَعُولُ
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“By Allah, for one of you to go in the morning, collect firewood, carry it on his back, and sell it to suffice himself and give charity from it: that is better for him than going to a man and asking him – he either giving or denying. That is because the upper (giving) hand is better than the lower (taking) hand. And start (giving) to those for whom you are responsible.”

  • A highly rewardable charity

The messenger of Allah said:

“Whatever a man gives to his wife is a charity (in his record)” (Ahmad)

he also said:

“When a muslim spends on his family, thereby seeking Allah’s reward, it is regarded as sadaqa for him” (Bukhari, Muslim)

  • The best form of spending

A man’s concern should first be about reasonably sufficing his wife and family. It is reported that the messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said:

“When Allah gives one of you some good, he should start be spending on himself and his family members” (Muslim, Ahmad)

  • Adequate support is an earned right for the wife

If a man does not financially support his wife in a manner compatible with his financial resources and her needs, she would be justified to take, without his permission, a portion of his money that would suffice her and her children. Aisha rah reported that Hind bint `Utbah came to the prophet and said “Oh messenger of Allah! Indeed Abu Sufyan is a stingy man. He does not give me what would suffice me and my children – except for tht which I take without his knowledge.”

He said:

خذي من ماله بالمعروف ما يكفيك و ما يكفي بنيك

“Take of his money, in a reasonable manner, as much as would suffice you and your children.” (Muslim)

  • The great sin of neglect

The prophet saw said:

“A sufficient sin for a person would be that he neglects those whom he feeds”

  • Providing her with food, clothing and other basic needs

Allah swt says in surat alBaqara 2:233:

وَعَلَى المَولُودِ لَهُ  رِزْقُهُنَّ وَكِسوَتهُنَّ بِالمَعرُوفِ‌

<<And upon the father is their (the mother’s) provision and clothing according to what is reasonable>>

  • Providing a reasonable dwelling
  • The dowry (mahr)
  • Kind treatment and compassion

Allah says in surat an Nisaa’ 4:19:

<<Live with them (your wives) in kindness; even if you dislike them, perhaps you dislike something in which Allah has placed much good.>>

  • Understanding the woman’s different and fragile nature
  • Entertaining the wife
  • Fairness and justice

It is an obligation on the husband to treat his wife and family with fairness and justice.

The prophet pbuh said:

“Avoid oppression, because oppression will result in deep darkness on the Day of Resurrection”

  • Equal turns

Discipline

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